Sports Medicine


Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?

Knee Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

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Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)

A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is recommended for patients suffering from moderate to severe degenerative osteoarthritis. The degenerative or diseased cartilage is replaced with metal. A metal cap is placed on the end of the femur (thigh bone) and on the top of the tibia (shin bone) with a plastic spacer between them.

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Arthritis is damage, degeneration, or injury to the cartilage that covers the ends of our bones (articular cartilage). When our cartilage is young and healthy, it is a nice smooth surface that allows our joint to move freely and pain-free. As we age our cartilage often becomes degenerative and soft and can become thin or completely worn away, causing pain and inflammation in the knee.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope-like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears, unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and, with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery, can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates. Learn more about ACL reconstruction by clicking on the links below:

ACL Reconstruction With Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction With Patellar Tendon

Uni-Condylar Knee Replacement

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral compartment and the medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). In some cases, only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this, then you may be a suitable candidate for this procedure.

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Revision Knee Replacement

This means that a part of or your entire previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from a very minor adjustment to a massive operation replacing significant amount of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

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Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons:

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